Partially SolvedYear of origin: 1978

Posted online: 2018-07-07 19:13:48Z by Hayk Aleksanyan137

Cite as: P-180707.1

Consider the **homogenization** problem of the elliptic system
\begin{equation}
- \nabla \cdot A \left( \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right) \nabla u (x) = 0, \ \ x \in D, \tag{1}
\end{equation}
in a domain $D\subset \mathbb{R}^d$, ($d\geq 2$), and with oscillating Dirichlet boundary data
\begin{equation}
u(x) = g \left(x , \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right), \ \ x \in \partial D. \tag{2}
\end{equation}

Here $\varepsilon> 0$ is a small parameter, and $A= A^{\alpha \beta } (x) \in M_N(\mathbb{R})$, $x\in \mathbb{R}^d$ is a family of functions indexed by $1\leq \alpha, \beta \leq d$ and with values in the set of matrices $M_N( \mathbb{R})$. For each $\varepsilon>0$ let $\mathcal{L}_\varepsilon$ be the differential operator in question, i.e. the $i$-th component of its action on a vector function $u=(u_1,...,u_N)$ is defined as $$ (\mathcal{L}_\varepsilon u)_i (x)= - \left( \nabla \cdot A \left( \frac{\cdot}{\varepsilon} \right) \nabla u \right)_{i} (x) = -\partial_{x_\alpha} \left[ A^{\alpha \beta }_{ij} \left( \frac{\cdot}{\varepsilon} \right) \partial_{x_\beta} u_j \right], $$ where $1\leq i \leq N$ (the case $N=1$ corresponds to scalar equations). We impose the following conditions on the problem $(1)$-$(2)$:

**(Ellipticity)** there exists a constant $\lambda>0$ such that for any $x\in \mathbb{R}^d$, and any $\xi=(\xi^\alpha_i)\in \mathbb{R}^{dN}$ one has
$$
\lambda \xi^\alpha_i \xi^\alpha_i \leq A^{\alpha \beta}_{ij}(x) \xi^\alpha_i \xi^\beta_j \leq \frac{1}{\lambda} \xi^\alpha_i \xi^\alpha_i.
$$

**(Periodicity)** $A$ and, $g$ in its second variable, are both $\mathbb{Z}^d$-periodic, i.e. $A(y+h) = A(y)$, and $g(x, y + h) = g(y)$ for all $x\in \partial D$, $y\in \mathbb{R}^d$, and $h\in \mathbb{Z}^d$.

We skip further assumptions on the smoothness and geometry of the domain, these are not relevant for introducing the general problem.

For each $\varepsilon > 0$ let $u_\varepsilon$ be the unique solution to $(1)$-$(2)$.

The main question, in general terms, asks:
$$
\textbf{What can we say about the limit of } u_\varepsilon \textbf{ as } \varepsilon \to 0 \ ?
$$
In other words does $(1)$-$(2)$ have a *homogenized limit* and if so what properties does it have?

Following is a brief discussion based on [1] (see also [2]-[4] for details) on how one may naturally appear at $(1)$-$(2)$.

Consider problem $(1)$ but with a fixed boundary data $g$, i.e.
$$
-\nabla \cdot A\left( \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right) \nabla u (x) = 0 , \ x\in D \qquad \text{and} \qquad u= g(x), \ x\in \partial D.
$$
By Lax-Milgram for each $\varepsilon>0$ this problem has a unique weak solution $u_\varepsilon \in H^1(D; \mathbb{R}^N)$, which converges weakly in $H^1(D)$ to solution $u_0$ of the homogenized problem
$$
-\nabla \cdot A^0 \nabla u_0 (x) = 0 , \ x\in D \qquad \text{ and } \qquad u_0= g(x), \ x\in \partial D.
$$
Here $A^0$ is the homogenized coefficient tensor and is defined via the solutions of the *cell-problem*, namely
for $1\leq \gamma \leq d$ define $\chi = \chi^\gamma (y) \in M_N(\mathbb{R})$ to be the periodic solution of the problem
$$
-\partial_\alpha [ A^{\alpha \beta}(y) \partial_\beta \chi^\gamma(y) ] = \partial_\alpha A^{\alpha \gamma } (y) \text{ in } \mathbb{T}^d \text{ and } \int_{\mathbb{T}^d} \chi^\gamma(y) dy = 0 ,
$$
where $\mathbb{T}^d$ is the unit torus, and we adopted the summation convention of repeated indices. The homogenized coefficients are defined by
$$
A^{0, \alpha \beta} = \int_{ \mathbb{T}^d } A^{\alpha \beta} dy + \int_{\mathbb{T}^d} A^{\alpha \gamma} \partial_{\gamma } \chi^{\beta} dy.
$$

Setting $u_1 (x,y) = - \chi^{\alpha} (y) \partial_{\alpha} u_0(x)$ one obtains
$$
u_\varepsilon(x) = u_0(x) + \varepsilon u_1 \left( x, \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right) + O( \varepsilon^{1/2} ) \text{ in } H^1(D).
$$
The latter is the justification that the first two terms of the formal **two-scale expansion** of $u_\varepsilon$ are correct.
Now observe that there is a mismatch of the boundary data in the left and right hand sides of the last expansion. The profile $u_1$ being periodic in its second variable oscillates near the boundary, giving rise to the so-called **boundary layer** phenomenon, which is responsible for the $\varepsilon^{1/2}$ loss in the approximation of $u_\varepsilon$. Quoting [1],

*Of particular importance is the analysis of the behavior of solutions near boundaries and, possibly, any associated boundary layers. Relatively little seems to be known about this problem.*

Indeed, correcting the boundary data by $u_{1,\varepsilon }^{bl}$ defined as $$ \mathcal{L}_\varepsilon u_{1, \varepsilon }^{bl} = 0 \text{ in } D \qquad \text{and} \qquad u_{1, \varepsilon }^{bl} = -u_1 \left( x, \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right) \text{ on } \partial D, $$ we get $$ u_\varepsilon(x) = u_0(x) + \varepsilon u_1 \left( x, \frac{x}{\varepsilon} \right) + \varepsilon u_{1, \varepsilon}^{bl} (x) + O( \varepsilon ) \text{ in } H^1(D). $$ While this expansion shows that correcting the boundary data in the two-scale expansion of $u_\varepsilon$ gives a better approximation, it is of little use as long as we do not understand the behavior of $u_{1, \varepsilon}^{bl}$ as $\varepsilon \to 0$. The last question is precisely a partial case of $(1)$-$(2)$, with boundary data $g(x,y) = - \chi^{\alpha} (y) \partial_{\alpha} u_0(x) $.

## Partial SolutionHomogenization of boundary layers for divergence type operators in strictly convex domains

## Partial SolutionPointwise estimate in homogenization of Dirichlet problem for elliptic systems in divergence form

## Partial Solution$L^p$ estimates in homogenization of Dirichlet problem for elliptic systems in divergence form

New solution is added on 2018-07-07 19:14:43Z View the solution

New solution is added on 2018-07-07 19:14:27Z View the solution

New solution is added on 2018-07-07 19:14:12Z View the solution

Created at: 2018-07-07 19:13:48Z

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